Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 297-305.doi: 10.24920/003703

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基于机器学习的脑卒中高危人群无症状性颈动脉狭窄的检测研究

尹俊雄1,余诚2,魏丽霞2,余传勇1,刘红星1,杜明洋1,孙丰1,王崇骏2,王小姗1,*()   

  1. 1南京医科大学附属脑科医院神经内科,南京 210029,中国
    2南京大学计算机科学与技术系,南京 210093,中国
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-16 接受日期:2020-03-24 出版日期:2020-12-31 发布日期:2020-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 王小姗 E-mail:professor_wxs@163.com

Detection of Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis in High-Risk Individuals of Stroke Using a Machine-Learning Algorithm

Junxiong Yin1,Cheng Yu2,Lixia Wei2,Chuanyong Yu1,Hongxing Liu1,Mingyang Du1,Feng Sun1,Chongjun Wang2,Xiaoshan Wang1,*()   

  1. 1Department of Neurology, Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
    2Department of Computer Science and Technology,Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2019-12-16 Accepted:2020-03-24 Online:2020-12-31 Published:2020-09-28
  • Contact: Xiaoshan Wang E-mail:professor_wxs@163.com

摘要:

目的 无症状性颈动脉狭窄(asymptomatic carotid stenosis, ACS)与严重的脑血管病关系密切。早期识别ACS患者及相关危险因素有助于脑卒中的一级预防。本研究旨在探讨一种基于相关危险因素的机器学习算法来检测脑卒中高危人群中ACS发生情况。
方法 依据ACS可能的30项危险因素,我们建立一种新的机器学习模型。该模型的算法采用基于训练数据的随机森林模式,然后利用测试数据计算并校准。所有原始数据均来自中国脑卒中筛查与预防项目(China National Stroke Screening and Prevention Project,CNSSPP)。以脑卒中高危个体为研究对象,按照4:1比例随机分为训练组和测试组。根据颈动脉超声检查结果,将训练组分为ACS组和对照组。用受试者工作特性曲线(receiver operating characteristic, ROC)的曲线下面积(area under the curve,AUC)值来验证模型对检测ACS的有效性。
结果 本研究共纳入2841例脑卒中高危个体,其中326例(11.6%)确诊为ACS。经过模型计算,引起ACS的前五位危险因素是血脂异常家族史、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇升高、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇降低、高龄、和低体重指数。它们的权重分别为11.8%,7.6%,7.1%,6.1%和6.1%。前15位危险因素的总体权重为85.5%。测试组数据验证本机器学习模型在脑卒中高危人群中检测ACS的AUC值为0.888。
结论 本研究证明机器学习算法可用于脑卒中高危人群中ACS的危险因素识别。血脂异常家族史可能是预测ACS发病的首要危险因素。该机器模型可以用作脑卒中一级预防优化临床方法的工具。

关键词: 脑卒中, 高危人群, 无症状性颈动脉狭窄, 危险因素, 机器学习

Abstract:

Objective Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is closely associated to the incidence of severe cerebrovascular diseases. Early identifying the individuals with ACS and its associated risk factors could be beneficial for primary prevention of stroke. This study aimed to investigate a machine-learning algorithm for the detection of ACS among high-risk population of stroke based on the associated risk factors.
Methods A novel model of machine learning was utilized to screen the associated predictors of ACS based on 30 potential risk factors. The algorithm of this model adopted a random forest pattern based on the training data and then was verified using the testing data. All of the original data were retrieved from the China National Stroke Screening and Prevention Project (CNSSPP), including demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics. The individuals with high risk of stroke were enrolled and randomly divided into a training group and a testing group at a ratio of 4:1. The identification of carotid stenosis by carotid artery duplex scans was set as the golden standard. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the model in detecting ACS.
Results Of 2841 high risk individual of stroke enrolled, 326 (11.6%) were diagnosed as ACS by ultrasonography. The top five risk factors contributing to ACS in this model were identified as family history of dyslipidemia, high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), aging, and low body mass index (BMI). Their weights were 11.8%, 7.6%, 7.1%, 6.1%, and 6.1%, respectively. The total weight of the top 15 risk factors was 85.5%. The AUC values of the model for detecting ACS with training dataset and testing dataset were 0.927 and 0.888, respectively.
Conclusions This study demonstrated that the machine-learning algorithm could be used to identify the risk factors for ACS among high risk population of stroke. Family history of dyslipidemia may be the most important risk factor for ACS. This model could be a suitable tool to optimize the clinical approach for the primary prevention of stroke.

Key words: high-risk population, stroke, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, risk factors, machine learning

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