Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (2): 76-83.doi: 10.24920/003611

• 观点 • 上一篇    下一篇

健康和医学领域的人工智能:期许、伦理挑战和治理

关健1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 国家人口与健康科学数据共享服务平台 临床医学科学数据中心
    2. 中国医学科学院&北京协和医学院 北京协和医院 北京100730,中国;
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-05 接受日期:2019-05-31 出版日期:2019-06-30 发布日期:2019-06-07
  • 通讯作者: 关健 E-mail:gjpumch@126.com

Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare and Medicine: Promises, Ethical Challenges and Governance

Guan Jian1,2,*()   

  1. 1. Clinical Center, the National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health
    2. Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China;
  • Received:2019-05-05 Accepted:2019-05-31 Online:2019-06-30 Published:2019-06-07
  • Contact: Guan Jian E-mail:gjpumch@126.com

摘要:

人工智能正迅速地应用于包括医学在内的广泛领域,并被认为是一种可以在初级医疗保健中增强或替代专业医务人员的方法。然而,人工智能也同时引发了一些挑战和伦理问题的关注。本文作者从人工智能在医学和健康照护领域应用和前景、人工智能在一些前沿领域的特殊伦理关注、以及一些有参考价值的伦理治理体系三个方面进行了调查和探讨。尽管前沿人工智能在医疗领域的研究与开发具有很大潜力,但其应用所引发的伦理挑战对治理提出了新的要求。为确保医疗和医学领域的人工智能应用“值得信赖”,建议建立全球的伦理治理框架和体系以及医学领域前沿人工智能应用的专门指南。而其中最重要的方面,是应发挥政府在伦理监管中的作用和明确利益相关者在伦理治理体系中的责任。

关键词: 人工智能, 医学伦理学, 伦理治理, 机器学习, 脑-机交互, 类脑智能, 机器人, “生物杂交”

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly being applied to a wide range of fields, including medicine, and has been considered as an approach that may augment or substitute human professionals in primary healthcare. However, AI also raises several challenges and ethical concerns. In this article, the author investigates and discusses three aspects of AI in medicine and healthcare: the application and promises of AI, special ethical concerns pertaining to AI in some frontier fields, and suggestive ethical governance systems. Despite great potentials of frontier AI research and development in the field of medical care, the ethical challenges induced by its applications has put forward new requirements for governance. To ensure “trustworthy” AI applications in healthcare and medicine, the creation of an ethical global governance framework and system as well as special guidelines for frontier AI applications in medicine are suggested. The most important aspects include the roles of governments in ethical auditing and the responsibilities of stakeholders in the ethical governance system.

Key words: artificial intelligence, medical ethics, ethical governance, machine learning, brain-computer interaction, brain-inspired computer, robots, biohybrids

Copyright © 2018 Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. All right reserved.
 
www.cmsj.cams.cn
京公安备110402430088 京ICP备06002729号-1  Powered by Magtech.

Supervised by National Health & Family Plan Commission of PRC

9 Dongdan Santiao, Dongcheng district, Beijing, 100730 China

Tel: 86-10-65105897  Fax:86-10-65133074 

E-mail: cmsj@cams.cn  www.cmsj.cams.cn

Copyright © 2018 Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

All right reserved.

京公安备110402430088  京ICP备06002729号-1