Citing a literature in a manuscript should be numbered consecutively in the order of which they are first mentioned in the text. Below are examples of reference in some common cases. For more details of referencing please refer to the NLM web page of Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal. Some examples for referencing literature are listed below:
List the first 3 authors followed by “et al.”. The commen format of the journal for reference is as below:
Tanaka S, Labreuche J, Drumez E, et al. Low HDL levels in sepsis versus trauma patients in intensive care unit. Ann Intensive Care 2017; 7(1):4-11. doi: 10.1186/s13613-017-0284-3.
For non-English journal titles, indicate the language of the article after the location (pagination):
For article published with corrections:
Wilkniss SM, Hunter RH, Silverstein SM. [Multimodal treatment of aggression and violence in individuals with psychosis]. Sante Ment Que 2004; 29(2):143-74. French. doi: 10.7202/010835ar.
Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 188(1-2):22-5. DOI: 10.1016/s0303-7207(02)00038-2. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 183(1-2):123-6. doi: 10.1016/s0303-7207(01)00596-2.
Books and monographs
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Conference paper in a proceeding
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.
Issued by funding/sponsoring agency:
Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on vibration signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123. Contract No.: F496209810049.
Issued by performing agency:
Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.
Journal article on internet
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs 2002; 102(6): [about 1p.]. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Fulltext/2002/06000/Quality_Improvement_Initiative_in_Nursing_Homes.31.aspx. [cited 2002 Aug 12]. Subscription required.
Monograph on internet
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html. Accessed 2002 Jul 9.
Dataset on internet
Miron A, Sadawi N, Ismail W, Hussain H, et al. IntelliRehabDS (IRDS)—A Dataset of Physical Rehabilitation Movements. Data 2021; 6(5):46. https://doi.org/10.3390/data6050046.
Ren X, He H, Zhang L, et al. Global radiation; photosynthetically active radiation; and the diffuse components dataset of China; 1981–2010. V1. Science Data Bank. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.555. (Date of release or update).
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